See the Research

Spectrum Human Services, Inc. continues to demonstrate a commitment to excellence in innovative program development and to the ongoing discovery of knowledge in the human and social services. To this end, funding is sought to support specific research-based and innovative projects each year and scholarly publications are developed to disseminate important findings and generate new ideas in the field.

Major Projects:

Implementing a Company-Wide Trauma-Focused Environment
Currently, Spectrum is developing and implementing a company-wide trauma-focused environment in order to most effectively address the needs of individuals served. With funding from the Ethel and James Flinn Foundation, the comprehensive change process is being implemented throughout the more than 15 programs in Spectrum Child and Family Services. The project will continue through December, 2019.

Reentry Program Nationally Recognized as a Promising Practice
The Wayne County Second Chance Reentry Project, a county-wide collaborative effort led by Spectrum and Central Care Management Organization, has been nationally recognized as a promising practice by the National Institute of Justice and is now available through, the evidence-based repository of promising practices in justice programs. The project that was implemented initially in Spectrum’s residential treatment facilities (Calumet and Lincoln) followed by the region’s community-based providers, used a dosage-based treatment model to support youth from residential treatment through the first six months of community reintegration. The program resulted in reducing recidivism by approximately 50%.

Addressing Trauma among Court-Involved Adolescents
Currently, Spectrum is working to address trauma among court-involved adolescents and learn more about the effects of particular treatment models. Funded by the Ethel and James Flinn Foundation, Spectrum is implementing Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) with justice- involved adolescents. While Spectrum has long provided trauma-informed care in several programs, this particular project allows Spectrum to implement a specific evidence-based trauma treatment and evaluate the associated outcomes. Approximately 150 youth will be able to participate in the specialized treatment, and the knowledge gleaned from the results will be used to inform future treatment of trauma among adolescents. The project will continue through December, 2019.

This is Spectrum’s second T-F CBT project and outcomes evaluation. Initial results from the first project will be published in 2019.

Implementing Developmentally-Focused Treatment in Juvenile Justice
Spectrum is also currently implementing an empirically-guided treatment program in its residential programs for adolescent offenders. The Forward-Focused Model© is a cutting edge treatment based on the most recent research and best practices in juvenile justice. The comprehensive, prescribed treatment model addresses the complex needs of adolescents, including brain development and other developmental needs, trauma and co-occurring issues, among others.

Eliminating Sexual Misconduct
In 2014, Spectrum completed an implementation project to achieve compliance with the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) in juvenile detention facilities in Wayne County, Michigan. The PREA Team included: Ms. Melissa Fernandez, Executive Director, Spectrum Juvenile Justice Services, Dr. Nancy Calleja, Clinical Director, Spectrum Human Services, Inc. & Affiliated Companies, and Ms. Ann Dadah, Graduate Research Assistant, University of Detroit Mercy. The project successfully resulted in full compliance through the promulgation of new policies and procedures, training, and the coordination of supportive resources to create cultures of zero tolerance for sexual assault, abuse, or harassment of detained youth.


Recently Published Research

Calleja, N. G. (2019). Assessing and addressing trauma among detained youth: A pre-post within subjects evaluation. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10826-019-01564-9
Calleja, N. G. (2019). Translating research into practice: Designing effective reentry strategies for adolescent offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 44, 18-23.
Calleja, N. G. & Dadah, A. M. (2018). Addressing faulty prescribing practices of psychotropic medication among court-involved children and adolescents. The Family Journal, 1-8.
Calleja, N. G., Dadah, A. M., Fisher, J., & Fernandez, M. (2016). Reducing juvenile recidivism through specialized reentry services. Journal of Juvenile Justice, 1-11.
Calleja, N. G. (2016). Deconstructing a puzzling relationship: Sex offender legislation and the crimes that inspired it, and sustained moral panic. Justice Policy Journal, 13(1), 1-17.
Calleja, N. G. (2014). Juvenile sexual and non-sexual offenders: A comparison of recidivism and risk. Journal of Addiction and Offender Counseling, 36(1), 2-12. DOI: 10.1002/j.2161-1874.2015.00031.x
Calleja, N. G. (2013). Integrating research into practice: The Forward-Focused Model of adolescent sexual behavior treatment. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 686-694. Doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2013.07.023
Alavi, Z., & Calleja, N. G. (2012). Use of psychotropic medications in the child welfare system: Causes, consequences, and proposed solutions. Child Welfare, 91(2), 77-94.
Calley, N. G. (2012). Juvenile offender recidivism: An examination of risk. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 21, 257-272.
Calley, N. G. & Richardson, E. M. (2011). Clinical prediction-making: Examining influential factors related to clinician prediction making of recidivism among juvenile offenders. The Journal of Addiction and Offender Counseling, 32, 2-15.

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